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The Sugar Island residents came to understand that while the treaties granted large tracks of land to the federal government, the documents did not end their sovereignty, or terminate their ancestral right to hunt and fish on the ceded lands and waters of the Ojibwe.

On Dec. 24, 1953, the residents became the “Original Bands of Chippewa Indians and Their Heirs.” At that time, Sault Ste. Marie and Sugar Island contained no lands for their people and the federal government considered them members of the Bay Mills Indian Community.

The descendants did not feel part of the Bay Mills Indian Community, located 30 miles south of Sugar Island. Bay Mills had not extended services to the Sugar Island residents and had not represented their needs at tribal council meetings. As a result, the Sugar Island group pushed for recognition as a separate tribe. The impoverished community in which they lived motivated their actions. Many of their friends and family members lacked employment or adequate housing and lived along unlit, unpaved streets.

Federal recognition would let the tribe contract with the federal government for basic services. Gaining recognition was not easy. The descendants had no financial resources, no political support and little information on how to present their claims to the federal government. Fortunately, the federal government had recently changed its policy toward Indian tribes with the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act. The Act ended an era of Indian removal and assimilation policies by creating laws to encourage tribes to reorganize their traditional economies and communities into self-governing nations.

The descendants saw the Act as a way to improve their community. Federal recognition would restore their sovereignty as a separate nation within the United States, give focus to their land claims, open the door to elect a government able to take land into trust and lead to the recognition of their treaty rights to hunt and fish.

Federal recognition took more than 20 years to complete. The descendants built their case by searching archives, gathering historical documents and culling census rolls, church records and military records. In the mid-1960s, the group included members from six historical Ojibwe bands: Sugar Island, Sault Ste. Marie, Drummond Island, Garden River, Grand Island and Point Iroquois.

In the early 1970s, the leaders of the Original Bands of Chippewa Indians traveled to Washington and successfully submitted their historical findings and legal argument to the Secretary of the Interior, who granted the tribe federal status in 1972.

Once recognized, the Original Bands became the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians. Land was taken into trust in March 1974 and Sault Tribe members adopted the tribe’s Constitution in fall 1975.

When the tribe adopted its Constitution, it had fewer than 10 employees, almost no outside funding and no revenues of its own. It gradually opened member service programs such as health, housing and education that were funded by the federal government and the state of Michigan. But member needs far outstripped those meager funding sources.

To close the gap, tribal leaders created a business-based economy. Businesses could provide added revenues and jobs for tribal members. The tribe has spent the past 25 years building a tribal economy providing employment and revenues to its people while making a positive impact on surrounding communities’ economic welfare.

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Photo by Ken Bosma / CC BY